Research reports

Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics at the UPR


Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics at the Universal Periodic Review provides an overview on how the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has shaped the protection of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) persons to date. It also addresses the challenges and the ways to try and turn the UPR into a greater mechanism to protect the rights of LGBTI persons on the ground.

Read more here.

Compilation of the Adoption of the 2016 SOGI Resolution


On 30 June 2016, the Human Rights Council (HRC) voted to establish an Independent Expert on Protection Against Violence and Discrimination based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. The establishment of the Independent Expert – a UN Special Procedure – is a tool to ensure sustained and systematic attention by a major organ of the United Nations to human rights violations on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, and can reinforce the fact that such human rights violations should be treated with due seriousness under international law. 

Read full report here. (Compiled by ARC International and ILGA)

UN and ARC Evaluation Reports


As part of our commitment to community dialogue, self-reflection and strategic analysis, ARC commissioned two external evaluation reports in 2014: one assessing SOGII advocacy at the UN over the past 10 years, including challenges, successes and next steps, and one assessing ARC’s own role, including positive contributions, areas where our work could be strengthened and possible future directions.

We are very grateful to the research team: Jack Byrne from New Zealand, Dodo Karsay from Hungary and Lucas Paoli from Brazil, as well as to the more than 100 people (including community-members, allies, diplomats and UN staff) who contributed to the two projects by sharing their views through survey responses and interviews.

We look forward to engaging in dialogue on how the findings can contribute to strengthening global LGBTI advocacy in the years to come.


How far has SOGII advocacy come at the UN and where is it heading?
Assessing sexual orientation, gender identity, and intersex activism and key developments at the UN 2003–2014



ARC International and its first 10 years:
Assessing ARC’s contributions to SOGII activism and UN achievements since 2003