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    • October 27, 201420th session of the Universal Periodic Review
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    Peru (2nd cycle)

    For a summary of Peru’s review at the first cycle please click here.

    14th UPR session
    Date of review: 1 November 2012
    Date of report adoption: 15 March 2013
    Working Group report: A/HRC/22/15

    Summary

    Recommendations: Repeal penal sanctions on homosexuality in the police force; Consider enacting legislation that addresses crimes based on sexual orientation; Consider applying the Yogyakarta Principles as a guide to assist in policy development.

    Status: Accepted.

    I. Key issues/recommendations identified by NGOs

    • include sexual orientation and gender identity in antidiscrimination legislation;
    • repeal penal sanctions on homosexuality in the police force;
    • provide for legal recognition of self-defined gender identity;
    • take measures to address hate crimes;
    • ensure equal access to HIV/AIDS services and treatment;
    • apply the Yogyakarta Principles.

    II. Excerpts from input reports

    National report

    III. Follow-up of the recommendations made during the first cycle of the universal periodic review
    B. Measures adopted to combat all forms of discrimination (recommendation 2)

    24. Domestic legislation prohibits acts of discrimination in any form. Article 2.2 of the Constitution, for example, recognizes the right to equality before the law and prohibits discrimination on any grounds, among which sexual orientation may be deemed to be included.

    27. Protective measures under the national plan to combat violence against women, 2009–2015, also cover lesbians who are victims of discrimination on account of their sexual orientation.

    Compilation of UN information

    I. Background and framework
    B. Constitutional and legislative framework

    9. CESCR recommended the adoption of specific legislation to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation.

    10. CESCR recommended amending the criminal code, concerned that it classified consensual sexual relations between adolescents as statutory rape and penalized abortions in cases of pregnancy resulting from rape. In 2011, CEDAW had similar observations.

    C. Institutional and human rights infrastructure and policy measures
    20. With regard to recommendation 2, the United Nations system noted that there has been no noticeable progress in the implementation of the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity as a guide for public policy development (UNCT submission, para. 4.).

    III. Implementation of international human rights obligations
    A. Equality and non-discrimination

    31. CESCR was concerned about discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in employment, housing and access to education and health care.

    Summary of stakeholder submissions

    Implementation of international human rights obligations, taking into account applicable international humanitarian law
    1. Equality and non-discrimination

    20. The Centro de Promoción y Defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos (PROMSEX) (Centre for the Promotion and Protection of Sexual and Reproductive Rights) reported that there is a bill before the legislature designed to combat discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. Joint submission 9 (JS9) recommended that a law be passed to ensure equality and non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity; that sexual orientation and gender identity be included among the categories protected under Act No. 28983 of 2007 (Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men Act); that legislation which denies or restricts people’s rights on the basis of their sexual orientation, gender identity or forms of gender expression be repealed or amended and that equal marriage rights be established by means of an amendment of the Constitution and the Civil Code; that Code MG.66 of annex III of Act No. 29356, which penalizes homosexuality in the national police force, be repealed; that a law be passed to make it permissible for the notation of the name and gender of holders of the national identity document (DNI) to reflect those with which they identify; and that consideration be given to the recommendation made at the last universal periodic review of Peru concerning the application of the Yogyakarta Principles as a guide for the development and implementation of policies to protect and promote rights in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity.

    2. Right to life, liberty and security of the person
    22. JS9 referred to violence against LGBT persons and recommended that a law be passed that defines and penalizes hate crimes, and that the necessary steps be taken to ensure that the police and the courts carry out investigations into hate crimes committed against LGBT persons and bring the perpetrators of such crimes to justice.

    7. Right to health
    56. Joint submission 5 (JS5) reported that official statistics indicate that HIV/AIDS is most prevalent among young people. JS8 referred to the shortage of anti-retroviral drugs for adults and children and recommended that supply management arrangements be revised in order to bring them into line with WHO recommendations on the subject. JS9 also referred to community health services for the LGBT population and recommended that universal access to HIV/AIDS preventive and diagnostic services and treatment be guaranteed and that health-care protocols be used that take all the needs of LGBT persons into account.

    III. References to SOGI during the Working Group review

    73. With regards to questions on legislative measures to combat discrimination against LGBTs, [the delegation of Peru] stated that, in general terms, domestic law including the Constitution prohibits discrimination of any kind. Moreover, Peru’s Constitutional Procedure Code explicit provides that persons discriminated against because of their sexual option can lodge a writ of “amparo” for their protection.

    93. Netherlands […] expressed hope that Peru would take measures to combat discriminations against LGBT persons.

    IV. Conclusions and/or recommendations

    116. The recommendations formulated during the interactive dialogue/listed below enjoy the support of Peru:

    116.14. Repeal penal sanctions on homosexuality in the police force (Slovenia);

    116.15. Consider enacting legislation that addresses crimes based on sexual orientation (Canada)[1];

    116.32. Consider applying the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity as a guide to assist in policy development (Slovenia).

    V. Adoption of the Report

    The report of the working group was adopted at the 22nd regular session of the Human Rights Council in March 2013.

    Statements by States and other Stakeholders

    Action Canada for Population and Development & Sexual Rights Initiative
    Felicitamos al Gobierno de Perú por haber aceptado la recomendaciones efectuadas por Eslovenia de considerar la posibilidad de utilizar los Principios de Yogyakarta como guía para la elaboración de políticas. El compromiso aceptado por Perú debe incluir el de aprobar una ley National de Identidad de Généro que permita el reconocimiento legal del nombre y généro con el cual las personas se sienten identificadas en toda documentación personal. Esta norma permitirá el acceso de muchas personas transgénero a derechos como la salud, la educación, un trabajo digno, entre otros. Derechos que ven restringidos por la falta de reconocimiento legal de su identidad.

    Cabe recordar que la misma recomendación mencionada anteriormente, fue recibida y aceptada por Perú en oportunidad de la ronda anterior EPU. Sin embargo en 2009 Perú que sanciona las relaciones homosexuales en esta institución.

    Por ese motivo vemos con agrado la aceptación por parte de Perú de la recomandación de derogar las sanciones penales por la conducta homosexual en la policia. Urgimos al Gobierno Peruano a cumplir con esta recomendación a la mayor brevedad ya que es una reglamentación discriminatoria y violatoria de diversos derechos.

    Adicionalmente, según un reporte efectuado por el Movimiento Homosexual de Lima, cada semana murió asesinada una persona LTGB en Perú. Estos asesinatos son la forma más extrema de violencia hacia esta población, violencia que también incluye la intimidación, el acoso, la agresión física o sexual.

    Estos crímenes suelen quedar impunes por falta de investigación o de consideración de la identidad y/o expresión de género y la orientación sexual como causales de crímenes. Por este motivo vemos con agrado la aceptación de la recomendación efectuada por Canadá de considerar la posibilidad de promulgar una ley que se ocupe de los delitos motivados por la orientación sexual a lo cual debe agregarse la identidad y/o la identidad de género.

    ILGA, delivered by Belissa Andia Perez
    (Video, chapter 15)

    Agradecemos al Estado Peruano por aceptar recomendaciones a fin de erradicar la discriminación contra las personas Lesbianas, Gays, Bisexuales, Transgéneros e Intersexuales (LGBTI).

    Si bien se rectificó el Decreto Legislativo N° 1150 que sancionaba actos homosexuales, y la Constitución proscribe la discriminación por cualquier índole, la realidad contrasta por las prácticas discriminatorias sistémicas. Los detractores de los derechos de la comunidad LGBTI se escudan en que la Constitución no expresa explícitamente los derechos a la orientación sexual e identidad de género.

    La ley contra la discriminación por orientación sexual e identidad de género ha sido bloqueada por sectores fundamentalistas que tienen eco en las esferas de poder, asumiendo que están en un Estado confesional a pesar que la Constitución garantiza un Estado secular con libertad de ideologías. Igualmente una ley contra los crímenes de odio ha tenido el mismo destino. De este modo se vive un ambiente de impunidad ante gravísimos hechos contra la integridad y la vida humana. Esperamos que la propuesta de Ley por una Identidad de Género, cardinal para la comunidad transgénero, no corra el mismo derrotero.

    En cuanto al Plan Nacional de Derechos Humanos (2012-2016) hemos visto desoídas una vez más nuestras voces. Dicho Plan no se basa en un diagnóstico sobre la situación de los DDHH, tampoco los indicadores de impacto que presenta son satisfactorios y se ha interrumpido el proceso participativo previo con la sociedad civil, dejando de lado los aportes sustanciales dados por los grupos LGBTI.

    Invocamos al gobierno peruano a ser explícito en aplicar los Principios de Yogyakarta como guía para la elaboración de políticas públicas, que establecen estándares básicos en relación a los derechos, hoy en día negados, por orientación sexual e identidad de género para terminar con la exclusión social de las personas transgénero protegiendo sus derechos económicos, sociales y culturales.

    Estamos seguros que el Perú sabrá seguir la senda de un diálogo amplio y constructivo pensando en todos sus ciudadanos y ciudadanas, guiado por principios de igualdad y justicia.

    VI. Further information

    UPR Documentation

    For first cycle reports of Peru, please see here

    National report 1 : ACE | FR | S
    Compilation of UN information 2: AC | E | FR | S
    Summary of stakeholders’ information 3: AC | E | FR | S
    Questions submitted in advance : E
    Addendum 1 :  E
    Addendum 2 : E
    Addendum 3 : E

    Outcome of the review:

    Report of the Working group: AC | E | FR | S
    Addendum: E | S


    [1] The recommendation as read during the interactive dialogue: “Enact legislation that addresses crimes based on sexual orientation to ensure that rights are protected and enforced (Canada)”.